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通信感知一体化硬件设计——现状与展望

林粤伟 张奇勋 尉志青 李兴旺 刘凡 范绍帅 王溢

林粤伟, 张奇勋, 尉志青, 李兴旺, 刘凡, 范绍帅, 王溢. 通信感知一体化硬件设计——现状与展望[J]. 电子与信息学报. doi: 10.11999/JEIT240012
引用本文: 林粤伟, 张奇勋, 尉志青, 李兴旺, 刘凡, 范绍帅, 王溢. 通信感知一体化硬件设计——现状与展望[J]. 电子与信息学报. doi: 10.11999/JEIT240012
LIN Yuewei, ZHANG Qixun, WEI Zhiqing, LI Xingwang, LIU Fan, FAN Shaoshuai, WANG Yi. Status and Prospect of Hardware Design on Integrated Sensing and Communication[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology. doi: 10.11999/JEIT240012
Citation: LIN Yuewei, ZHANG Qixun, WEI Zhiqing, LI Xingwang, LIU Fan, FAN Shaoshuai, WANG Yi. Status and Prospect of Hardware Design on Integrated Sensing and Communication[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology. doi: 10.11999/JEIT240012

通信感知一体化硬件设计——现状与展望

doi: 10.11999/JEIT240012
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金优秀青年科学基金(62022020),国家重点研发计划(2020YFA0711302),网络与交换技术全国重点实验室(北京邮电大学)开放课题(SKLNST-2023-1-14),泛网无线通信教育部重点实验室(北京邮电大学)开放课题,青岛科技大学公派国内访学项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    林粤伟:男,副教授、硕士生导师、博士,研究方向为通信感知一体化、B5G/6G无线通信、FPGA嵌入式技术等

    张奇勋:男,教授,研究方向为通信感知一体化等

    尉志青:男,副教授,研究方向为通信感知一体化、无线资源管理与优化等

    李兴旺:男,副教授,研究方向为通信感知一体化、RIS等

    刘凡:男,副研究员,研究方向为通信感知一体化等

    范绍帅:男,讲师,研究方向为通信感知一体化、无线通信、无线定位等

    王溢:男,博士,研究方向为通信感知一体化等

    通讯作者:

    张奇勋 zhangqixun@bupt.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN911.1

Status and Prospect of Hardware Design on Integrated Sensing and Communication

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China Excellent Youth Science Fund Project (62022020), The National Key R&D Program (2020YFA0711302), The Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications) (SKLNST-2023-1-14), The Open Foundation of Key Laboratory of Universal Wireless Communications (BUPT), Ministry of Education, P.R.China, The Public Domestic Visiting Program of Qingdao University of Science and Technology
  • 摘要: 通信感知一体化(ISAC)需要通信和感知共用无线电频段和硬件资源。多频段、大带宽、通信感知对硬件的要求不同等特点对通信感知一体化硬件设计提出更高要求。该文对后5G, 6G, WiFi等通信感知一体化的硬件设计、验证技术,以及硬件系统性验证平台进行归纳,对国内外近年相关硬件设计研究及其验证情况进行综述,关注通信感知两种系统对硬件的需求矛盾、带内全双工(IBFD)自干扰消除(SIC)、功放(PA)效率、电路性能对建模要求更高等硬件设计挑战。首先,总结、比较已有研究中通信感知一体化收发信机架构设计。然后,介绍、分析现有通信感知一体化带内全双工自干扰抑制方案、低峰均功率比(PAPR)波形与高性能PA设计、器件高精度建模方法以及硬件系统性验证平台。最后,总结全文并对未来通信感知一体化硬件设计所面临的开放性问题进行展望。
  • 图  1  论文结构

    图  2  传统TDD收发信机架构[34]

    图  3  接收机通信与感知部分分离的架构[36]

    图  4  基于多端口干涉器的收发信机架构[41]

    图  5  通感一体化系统IBFD架构[23]

    图  6  IBFD收发信机架构[46]

    图  7  接收机通信与感知完全分离的架构[21]

    图  8  混频器前置收发信机架构[47,48]

    图  9  LNA选择性旁路收发信机架构[49]

    图  10  EBD电气均衡双工器自干扰抵消原理[50]

    表  1  通感一体化IBFD架构性能对比

    文献 频点
    (GHz)
    带宽
    (MHz)
    波形 感知性能 通信性能 收发信机
    隔离度(dB)
    [44,45] 1.74 40 IEEE 802.11 OFDM波形 在保持与另一通信节点的IBFD链路的同时,在室内检测20 m内的目标,能够对速度为0.2~1 m/s的运动物体测速 误码率低于1.5% 大于85
    [46] 2.4 100 4G LTE与5G NR OFDM波形 可在室外对距离102.1 m、相对速度9 m/s的车辆进行测距测速,可以取得1 m量级的距离估计精度和超过90%的目标检测概率 未提供 100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  通感一体化收发信机架构总结

    文献 收发信机架构 通信双工方式 优点 缺点 说明
    [3234] TDD架构:传统无线电架构(超外差、零中频等) TDD 可直接复用已有架构 存在雷达感知最小距离问题,通信和雷达对收发信机要求不同导致一体化功能实现较为困难
    [35,36] TDD架构:接收机通信感知链路部分分离 TDD 保持接收机灵敏度,节省ADC 接收机额外增加感知链路,体积、重量增大 接收机天线、射频、大部分中频链路分离,时分复用
    基带链路
    [42] TDD架构:接收机基于多端口干涉器 TDD 便于估计AOA、简单易实现、低成本、极低功耗、可重配置 接收机灵敏度减小、动态范围有限、雷达探测距离减小 适合毫米波和大规模MIMO(对噪声性能要求宽松)
    [23] IBFD架构 IBFD(接收机可持续接收信号) 通信频谱利用率提升接近2倍、无雷达感知最小距离问题 收发天线互耦、自干扰抑制带来接收机计算资源消耗与硬件复杂度的增大 学术研究与未来产业落地的理想终极方案
    [16] 折中架构:接收机通信感知链路完全分离 TDD(接收机中的感知链路可持续接收信号) 避免自干扰、工程易实现、无雷达感知最小距离问题 接收机额外增加感知链路,体积、重量增大 学术研究与目前产业测试的折中过渡方案
    [47,48] 高频段架构:接收机混频器前置 TDD 缓解接收机饱和问题、面积与功耗减小、无雷达感知最小距离问题 接收机噪声系数增大、灵敏度减小、雷达探测距离减小 适合毫米波和大规模MIMO(对噪声性能要求宽松)
    [49] 高频段架构:接收机LNA选择性旁路 TDD 缓解接收机饱和问题、面积与功耗减小、无雷达感知最小距离问题 接收机噪声系数增大、雷达灵敏度减小、雷达探测距离减小 适合毫米波和大规模MIMO(对噪声性能要求宽松),发射信号时旁路
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  通感一体化部分代表性硬件验证平台

    文献 频点、带宽 波形 感知验证情况 通信验证情况 特点或局限性
    [46] 2.4 GHz,
    40 MHz
    OFDM 5G BS端下行链路室外静止无人机测距(距离
    40 m),室外多车辆测距、测速(距离50~
    110 m,速度12 m/s、±9 m/s)。
    IBFD架构,自干扰消除方法设计
    [70,71] 24 GHz,
    93.1 MHz
    OFDM 室外实际路况多车辆测距(100 m以内)、
    测速(–5 m/s,–12 m/s)。
    面向车联网、自动驾驶场景
    [29] 3.5 GHz,
    10 MHz
    LFM 模糊函数性能较好。 比特率1 Mbit/s,定向通信,给出QPSK星座图
    (误码率较好)
    雷达通信一体化波形首次得到硬件技术验证[24]
    [75] 73 GHz,
    2 GHz
    OFDM 毫米波室内外静止目标测距(4 m内)、
    测角、不支持测速。
    单工通信 毫米波高频段,受制于SIMO机械模拟的慢速,只能对静止目标测距、测角
    [94,95] 3.5 GHz,
    18 MHz
    OFDM 使用NI公司5G大规模MIMO实验平台验证近场室内移动物体厘米级定位。 - 只是初步探究感知功能在未来集成到大规模MIMO通信系统中的技术可行性,没有进行通信功能与性能测试
    [78,81,85] 28 GHz,
    800 MHz
    OFDM 通感算一体化:5G毫米波室内多车协同定位,测距0.9 m,精度0.044 m。 2.8 Gbit/s 面向车联网、自动驾驶场景的多站协同感知;TDD架构
    [81] 27.5 GHz OFDM 车辆测距、测速、测角。 视频传输 面向车联网、自动驾驶场景的单站感知
    [86,87] 5.4 GHz,
    560 MHz
    STC-OFDM-Chirp 固定翼飞机机载8 km高空对地SAR成像,
    分辨率0.3 m×0.3 m。
    传输图像,误码率较高(未加信道编码) 时空域多维度多波束一体化波形调制;
    固定翼飞机SAR成像
    [93] 26 GHz,
    100 MHz
    CP-OFDM 室外5G基站车辆、无人机感知:测距500 m
    以上;车辆测速精度小于0.1 km/h
    (车速30 km/h)、测角精度小于0.2o
    - 基于5G现网的通感一体化验证
    [96] 140 GHz,
    8 GHz
    OFDM, FMCW 大规模MIMO太赫兹毫米级不可
    见物体3维成像。
    - 只是初步探究太赫兹感知集成到大规模MIMO通信的可行性
    下载: 导出CSV
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