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基于深度强化学习的无人机辅助移动边缘计算系统能耗优化

张广驰 何梓楠 崔苗

张广驰, 何梓楠, 崔苗. 基于深度强化学习的无人机辅助移动边缘计算系统能耗优化[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2023, 45(5): 1635-1643. doi: 10.11999/JEIT220352
引用本文: 张广驰, 何梓楠, 崔苗. 基于深度强化学习的无人机辅助移动边缘计算系统能耗优化[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2023, 45(5): 1635-1643. doi: 10.11999/JEIT220352
ZHANG Guangchi, HE Zinan, CUI Miao. Energy Consumption Optimization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Assisted Mobile Edge Computing Systems Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2023, 45(5): 1635-1643. doi: 10.11999/JEIT220352
Citation: ZHANG Guangchi, HE Zinan, CUI Miao. Energy Consumption Optimization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Assisted Mobile Edge Computing Systems Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2023, 45(5): 1635-1643. doi: 10.11999/JEIT220352

基于深度强化学习的无人机辅助移动边缘计算系统能耗优化

doi: 10.11999/JEIT220352
基金项目: 广东省科技计划(2021A0505030015, 2020A050515010),广东特支计划(2019TQ05X409),智慧城市物联网国家重点实验室(澳门大学)开放课题(SKL-IoTSC(UM)-2021-2023/ORPF/A04/2022)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张广驰:男,教授,研究方向为新一代无线通信技术

    何梓楠:男,硕士生,研究方向为无人机通信、强化学习

    崔苗:女,讲师,研究方向为新一代无线通信技术

    通讯作者:

    崔苗 cuimiao@gdut.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN925

Energy Consumption Optimization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Assisted Mobile Edge Computing Systems Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

Funds: The Science and Technology Plan Project of Guangdong Province (2021A0505030015, 2020A050515010), The Special Support Plan for High-Level Talents of Guangdong Province (2019TQ05X409), The Open Research Project Programme of the State Key Laboratory of Internet of Things for Smart City (University of Macau) (SKL-IoTSC(UM)-2021-2023/ORPF/A04/2022)
  • 摘要: 近年来,部署搭载有移动边缘计算(MEC)服务器的无人机(UAVs)为地面用户提供计算资源已成为一种新兴的技术。针对无人机辅助多用户移动边缘计算系统,该文构建了以最小化用户平均能耗为目标的模型,联合优化无人机的飞行轨迹和用户计算策略的调度。通过深度强化学习(DRL)求解能耗优化问题,提出基于柔性参与者-评论者(SAC)的优化算法。该算法应用最大熵的思想来探索最优策略并使用高效迭代更新获得最优策略,通过保留所有高回报值的策略,增强算法的探索能力,提高训练过程的收敛速度。仿真结果表明与已有算法相比,所提算法能有效降低用户的平均能耗,并具有很好的稳定性和收敛性。
  • 图  1  无人机辅助的多用户移动边缘计算系统

    图  2  SAC算法框架图

    图  3  Actor网络与Critic网络的神经网络图

    图  4  不同方案下的无人机2维飞行轨迹对比图

    图  5  不同算法下的用户平均能耗对比图

    图  6  不同无人机最大覆盖用户数量条件下的用户平均能耗对比图

    图  7  不同用户数量条件下的用户平均能耗对比图

    算法1 基于SAC的最小化用户设备平均能量损耗算法的算法流程
     (1)初始化经验缓冲区,Actor网络,Critic网络及目标网络,初始化无人机起始位置坐标及终点位置坐标,随机生成用户坐标以及计算任务;
     (2)循环训练幕数 Episode = 1,2,···,$ M $:
     (3)  重新初始化无人机起始坐标以及初始状态$ s\left( 0 \right) $;
     (4)  循环时间步数 Time = 1,2,···,$ T $:
     (5)   由状态$ s\left( t \right) $根据策略$ {\pi _\phi } $选择动作$ a\left( t \right) $;
     (6)   无人机在状态$ s\left( t \right) $下执行动作$ a\left( t \right) $,进入下一状态$ s\left( {t + 1} \right) $且更新无人机坐标$ \left[ {X\left( t \right),Y\left( t \right),H} \right] $,并根据式(24)得到回报$ r\left( t \right) $以及
         根据式(8)计算所有用户的能耗$ \sum\nolimits_{i = 1}^N {{E_i}\left( t \right)} $;
     (7)   将$ \left[ {s\left( t \right),a\left( t \right),r\left( t \right),s\left( {t + 1} \right)} \right] $存储在经验缓冲区;
     (8)   更新状态$ s\left( t \right) = s\left( {t + 1} \right) $;
     (9)   从经验缓冲区中随机采样批次经验样本,根据式(21)、式(22)和式(23)分别计算损失函数$ {L_{{{\text{C}}_i}}}\left( {{\theta _i}} \right) $,$ {L_{\text{A}}}\left( \phi \right) $和$ L\left( \alpha \right) $,并更新Critic网
         络参数$ {\theta _i} $、Actor网络参数$ \phi $和熵正则化系数$ \alpha $;更新Critic目标函数参数,$ {\hat \theta _i} \leftarrow \tau {\theta _i} $$ + \left( {1 - \tau } \right){\hat \theta _i} $;
     (10)  直到Episode = $ M $;
     (11) 直到Time = $ T $;
     (12) 输出无人机飞行轨迹以及用户平均能量损耗。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  1  实验仿真参数

    参数符号表示设定值
    无人机最大覆盖用户数量$ {K_{\max }} $3
    最大时延( s)$ {T_{\max }} $1
    无人机最大飞行距离( m)$ {d_{\max }} $10
    用户发射功率(W)$ {P^{{\text{Tr}}}} $0.1
    无人机总带宽( MHz)$ W $6
    无人机接收天线的最大接收角度$ \theta $$ \pi /4 $
    参考距离(1 m)的信道功率增益$ {g_0} $$ 1.42 \times {10^{ - 4}} $
    噪声功率(dBm)$ {n^2} $–90
    无人机提供的CPU周期数( Hz)$ {f^{\text{U}}} $$ 5 \times {10^9} $
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-31
  • 修回日期:  2022-07-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-07-06
  • 刊出日期:  2023-05-10

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