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具有可重构特征的轨道角动量天线技术研究进展

吴杰 胡俊 张忠祥 沙威 黄志祥 吴先良

吴杰, 胡俊, 张忠祥, 沙威, 黄志祥, 吴先良. 具有可重构特征的轨道角动量天线技术研究进展[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2024, 46(4): 1173-1185. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230847
引用本文: 吴杰, 胡俊, 张忠祥, 沙威, 黄志祥, 吴先良. 具有可重构特征的轨道角动量天线技术研究进展[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2024, 46(4): 1173-1185. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230847
WU Jie, HU Jun, ZHANG Zhongxiang, SHA Wei, HUANG Zhixiang, WU Xianliang. Research Progress of Orbital Angular Momentum Antenna Technologies with Reconfigurable Characteristics[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2024, 46(4): 1173-1185. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230847
Citation: WU Jie, HU Jun, ZHANG Zhongxiang, SHA Wei, HUANG Zhixiang, WU Xianliang. Research Progress of Orbital Angular Momentum Antenna Technologies with Reconfigurable Characteristics[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2024, 46(4): 1173-1185. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230847

具有可重构特征的轨道角动量天线技术研究进展

doi: 10.11999/JEIT230847
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(62201192, 62201190),东南大学毫米波全国重点实验室开放基金(K202315)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴杰:男,博士,讲师,研究方向为可重构天线、轨道角动量天线

    胡俊:男,博士,教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为微波毫米波天线等

    张忠祥:男,博士,教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为电磁场与微波技术等

    沙威:男,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为计算与应用电磁学等

    黄志祥:男,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为计算电磁学、天线设计等

    吴先良:男,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为计算电磁学、天线设计等

    通讯作者:

    黄志祥 zxhuang@ahu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN820

Research Progress of Orbital Angular Momentum Antenna Technologies with Reconfigurable Characteristics

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (62201192, 62201190), The State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University (K202315)
  • 摘要: 轨道角动量(OAM)因其模式具有理论上无穷且正交互不干扰的特点,在扩展信道容量方面展现出良好的优势,为解决日趋紧张的频谱资源提供了一种新型设计自由度。面对复杂多样的无线通信场景,设计具有可重构特征的OAM天线,是实现多模态复用、智能信息感知和人工智能天线的物理层基础。该文首先结合可重构天线实现机理,给出了OAM可重构天线设计的方法及具备的特点;然后,系统性综述了具有可重构特征的OAM天线的研究进展;最后,对未来设计具有可重构特征的OAM天线研究进行了展望。
  • 图  1  OAM-MIMO模式复用和解复用原理图及SISO与MIMO信道容量比较

    图  2  各种可重构器件及其应用设计

    图  3  基于UCA-OAM复用天线在多径环境中传播模型

    图  4  各种类型的OAM天线

    图  5  各种具有可重构特征OAM波多模生成结构

    表  1  射频微波段代表性天线产生OAM波性能总结

    天线结构 文献 时间 中心频率
    (GHz)
    OAM模式 发散角 优点 缺点
    螺旋相位板
    (SPP)
    [69] 2020 18 1 未给出 1.模式纯度高
    2.增益高
    1.不适合低频率
    2.限制多模产生
    3.难于加工制作
    4.设计灵活性差
    [15] 2014 28 ±1和±3 未给出
    反射板抛物面 [71] 2015 18 +1 12° 1.设计复杂度低
    2.模式纯度高
    3.高阶模式发散小
    4.增益方向性高
    1.限制多模式产生
    2.设计适用性差
    3.口径尺寸大
    4.馈线遮挡信号
    [72] 2021 10 不固定
    (理论分析)
    10°
    圆环阵列天线
    (UCA)
    [32] 2014 1.55 ±1 未给出 1.中等设计复杂度
    2.设计适应性强
    3.频率适应范围宽
    4.可产生多模式,模式纯度中等
    1.互耦可能会存在
    2.增益较低
    [74] 2019 73.5 +1和+3 60°
    [75] 2020 5.2 ±1和±2 30°
    [76] 2022 29 0,±1,±2和±3 未给出
    [77] 2022 9.2 –1和–2 90°
    超表面 [78] 2019 5.2和10.5 +1和+2 18° 1.OAM波发散小
    2.可产生多模式
    1.口径尺寸比较大
    2.设计复杂度高
    3.设计适应性差
    [79] 2019 10 +1 15°
    [80] 2023 28 –1和–2 20°
    介质谐振天线
    (DRA)
    [81] 2016 17.8和20.4 –3和–4 未给出 1.设计复杂度低
    2. 可产生多模式
    1.由于介电常数原因,
    在高频段口径尺寸变大
    [82] 2017 5.8 ±1 90°
    [83] 2023 3.56 +1 45°
    螺旋行波天线 [84] 2019 5.8 0,–1,–2和-3 未给出 1.多模复用适应性强
    2. 模式纯度较高
    3. 设计复杂度低
    1.增益较低
    2.波束易发散,传播距离有限
    [19] 2019 3 +1,+3和+5 60°
    [86] 2023 3.5 0,–1,–2和-3 90°
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  具有可重构特征的各种类型OAM天线性能比较

    天线结构 文献 工作频率(GHz) 天线尺寸(λ0) 极化 OAM模式 增益(dBi) 发散角 可重构方案
    及控制装置
    微带天线(UCA) [22] 2.29~2.75 1.28×1.28×0.07 LHCP和
    RHCP
    ±1 5.3 60° RFN,
    16个p-i-n二极管
    [30] 5.0~6.3 2.38×2.38×0.07 LP ±1和0 11.05 40° RFN+可重构辐射单元,
    32个p-i-n二极管
    [31] 2.45 1.7×2×0.007 LP ±1 7.1,7.0 80° 8个变容管
    [93] 5.0~5.4 2.8×2.8×
    0.06
    LP ±1和±2
    混合模式
    ±1:3.7
    ±2:8.9
    40° 双圆环阵列
    多端口实现
    [77] 8.9~9.3 半径:1.23
    高度:0.12
    LHCP和
    RHCP
    –1和–2 8~10 90° 双圆环阵列
    多端口实现
    水天线 [89] 2.35~2.55 半径:1.29
    高度:0.1
    LP +1,+2独立和混合 2.5~
    4.1
    75° RFN,
    2个p-i-n二极管
    超表面
    透射阵
    [90] 9.5~10.5 9.32×9.32×
    0.03
    LP +1和+2 13.1~
    18.5
    25° 20×20单元,
    800个p-i-n二极管
    [91] 5.7~6.4 3.2×3.2×
    0.05
    LP 0,±1和±2 15.9 未给出 16×16单元,
    512个p-i-n二极管
    超表面
    反射阵
    [36] 10 10.7×10.7×
    0.037
    LP ±1 未给出 未给出 32×32单元,
    2048个变容管
    [76] 28~30 10×10×
    0.143
    LP 0,±1,±2和±3 0:24.2 未给出 20×20单元,
    400个p-i-n二极管
    八臂螺旋天线 [92] 2.427 半径:0.7 LP 多个单模及双模式混合 6.53~
    8.42
    未给出 用于MIMO系统,端口控制
    卡塞格伦反射面天线 [88] 18 高剖面 LP 0和±1 高增益 10° 馈电端口控制
    UCA龙伯透镜 [93] 2.45 半径:2.5
    高剖面
    LP 0,+1和+2 高增益 30° 馈电端口控制
    双螺旋液体天线 [94] 1.6~2.1/
    5.2~6.0
    半径:23 mm
    高度:47 mm
    LP ±1和±3 7.2~
    7.7
    90° 注入溶液温度、浓度
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-04
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-06
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-24

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