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基于自由空间光的无人机通信网络关键技术与发展趋势

冯斯梦 赵一迪 董超 吴启晖

冯斯梦, 赵一迪, 董超, 吴启晖. 基于自由空间光的无人机通信网络关键技术与发展趋势[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2024, 46(6): 2311-2322. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230644
引用本文: 冯斯梦, 赵一迪, 董超, 吴启晖. 基于自由空间光的无人机通信网络关键技术与发展趋势[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2024, 46(6): 2311-2322. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230644
FENG Simeng, ZHAO Yidi, DONG Chao, WU Qihui. Key Technologies and Development Trends of Free Space Optical UAV Communication Network[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2024, 46(6): 2311-2322. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230644
Citation: FENG Simeng, ZHAO Yidi, DONG Chao, WU Qihui. Key Technologies and Development Trends of Free Space Optical UAV Communication Network[J]. Journal of Electronics & Information Technology, 2024, 46(6): 2311-2322. doi: 10.11999/JEIT230644

基于自由空间光的无人机通信网络关键技术与发展趋势

doi: 10.11999/JEIT230644
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金青年科学基金(62001219),江苏省基础研究计划自然科学基金—前沿引领技术基础研究专项(BK20222013),江苏省产业前瞻与关键核心技术重点项目课题(BE2021013-4)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    冯斯梦:女,副研究员,研究方向为无线光通信技术、无人机通信网络、天地一体智能信息网络等

    赵一迪:女,硕士生,研究方向为无线光通信技术、无人机通信网络等

    董超:男,教授,研究方向为无人机蜂群自组织网络、空天地一体智联网、边缘网络智能、无人机协同智能应用等

    吴启晖:男,教授,研究方向为认知科学与应用、认知信息论、天地一体化智能信息网络、电磁空间频谱认知智能管控等

    通讯作者:

    冯斯梦 simeng-feng@nuaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN929.12

Key Technologies and Development Trends of Free Space Optical UAV Communication Network

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China Youth Science Foundation Project (62001219), The Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province Basic Research Program-Frontier Leading Technology Basic Research Project (BK20222013), Jiangsu Province Industry Outlook and Key Core Technology Key Projects (BE2021013-4)
  • 摘要: 在当前电磁频谱拥堵和无线电干扰严重的情况下,基于自由空间光(FSO)的无人机(UAV)通信网络作为推进空天地一体化进程的重要一环,得到了学术界和工业界的广泛关注。与传统射频通信相比,FSO通信具有高数据传输速率、低时延和高安全性等优势。然而,FSO链路易受大气信道条件影响,同时UAV高移动性、网络高动态性以及机载资源的有限性给FSO的稳定连接与可靠通信带来了巨大挑战。因此,该文在介绍了FSO传输特性的基础上,着重分析了提升基于FSO的UAV通信网络稳定性与通信质量的关键技术,在此基础上,归纳出高可靠、强智能、长续航的发展趋势,以期为基于FSO的UAV通信网络发展提供参考与借鉴。
  • 图  1  基于FSO的UAV通信网络

    图  2  指向误差示意图

    图  3  到达角波动示意图

    图  4  基于FSO/RF混合的UAV通信网络

    图  5  中继传输的基于FSO的UAV通信网络

    图  6  缓存辅助的基于FSO的UAV通信网络

    表  1  分子吸收系数表

    波长(nm)分子吸收(dB/km)
    5500.13
    6900.01
    8500.41
    15500.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  大气粒子散射过程表

    类型 半径(μm) 散射过程
    空气分子 0.0001 瑞利
    雾霾粒子 0.01~1.00 瑞利-米氏
    雾滴 1~20 三重几何
    100~10000 几何
    1000~5000 几何
    冰雹 5000~50000 几何
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  大气湍流类型

    条件类型特点
    漩涡尺度大于发射机光束大小光束漂移漩涡以随机方式从原始路径整体偏转光束,导致指向误差,光束错开接收机区域。
    漩涡尺度等于发射机光束大小光束闪烁漩涡起到透镜作用,使入射光束聚焦并导致接收机处的光辐射照度波动。
    漩涡尺度小于发射机光束大小光束扩散光束的一小部分被独立衍射和散射,导致接收功率密度降低以及接收光束的波前扭曲。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  UAV辅助的FSO/RF混合通信网络的系统模型

    FSO/RF混合方式文献系统建模
    备份传输[27]地面基站与宏基站通过FSO通信,在恶劣天气时采用RF通信。
    [28]卫星根据传感器获得的天气状况选择RF或FSO链路,调整发射功率,与地面用户进行通信。
    [29]用户向UAV发送信号,UAV通过基于交换机的混合FSO/RF链路与卫星连接。
    双跳异构传输[30]室外基站通过FSO链路将信号传输给UAV, UAV通过RF将信号传输到室内用户。
    [31]UAV利用FSO链路接收回程终端的信息,利用RF链路将信息转发到用户终端。
    [32]固定信源到UAV采用FSO通信,UAV到固定目的节点采用RF通信。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-29
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-06
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-17
  • 刊出日期:  2024-06-30

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